Categories
Bootstrap React

How to Build a New York Times App with React and Bootstrap

React is a great framework for building interactive web apps. It comes with a bare bones set of features. It can render your page when you update your data and provides a convenient syntax for you to write your code easily. We can easily use it to build apps that uses public APIs, like the New York Times API.

In this story, we will build an app that uses the New York Times API with multilingual capability. You can view the static text in the app in English or French. The app can get the news from different sections and also do searches. It supports cross domain HTTP requests so that we can write client side apps that uses the API.

Before building the app, you need to register for an API key at https://developer.nytimes.com/

To start building the app, we use the Create React App command line utility to generate the scaffolding code. To use it, we run npx create-react-app nyt-app to create the code in the nyt-app folder. After that we need to install some libraries. We need the Axios HTTP client, a library to convert objects into query strings, Bootstrap library to make everything look better, React Router for routing and create forms easily with Formik and Yup. For translation and localization, we use the React-i18next library to allow us to translate our text into English and French. To install the libraries, we run npm i axios bootstrap formik i18next i18next-browser-languagedetector i18next-xhr-backend querystring react-bootstrap react-i18next react-router-dom yup .

Now that we have all the libraries installed, we can start writing code. For simplicity’s sake, we put everything in the src folder. We start by modifying App.js . We replace the existing code with:

import React from "react";
import { Router, Route, Link } from "react-router-dom";
import HomePage from "./HomePage";
import TopBar from "./TopBar";
import { createBrowserHistory as createHistory } from "history";
import "./App.css";
import SearchPage from "./SearchPage";
import { useTranslation } from "react-i18next";
import { useState, useEffect } from "react";
const history = createHistory();

function App() {
  const { t, i18n } = useTranslation();
  const [initialized, setInitialized] = useState(false);
  const changeLanguage = lng => {
    i18n.changeLanguage(lng);
  };

useEffect(() => {
    if (!initialized) {
      changeLanguage(localStorage.getItem("language") || "en");
      setInitialized(true);
    }
  });

return (
    <div className="App">
      <Router history={history}>
        <TopBar />
        <Route path="/" exact component={HomePage} />
        <Route path="/search" exact component={SearchPage} />
      </Router>
    </div>
  );
}

export default App;

This is the root component of our app and is the component that is loaded when the app first loads. We use the useTranslation function from the react-i18next library returns an object with the t property and the i18n property,. Here, we destructured the returned object’s properties into its own variables. we will use the t , which takes a translation key, to get the English or French text depending on the language set. In this file, we use the i18n function to set the language with the provided i18n.changeLanguage function. We also set the language from local storage when provided so that the chosen language will be persisted after refresh.

We also add the routes for our pages here used by the React router.

In App.css ,we put:

.center {
  text-align: center;
}

to center some text.

Next we make the home page. we createHomePage.js and in the file, we put:

import React from "react";
import { useState, useEffect } from "react";
import Form from "react-bootstrap/Form";
import ListGroup from "react-bootstrap/ListGroup";
import Card from "react-bootstrap/Card";
import Button from "react-bootstrap/Button";
import { getArticles } from "./requests";
import { useTranslation } from "react-i18next";
import "./HomePage.css";

const sections = `arts, automobiles, books, business, fashion, food, health,
home, insider, magazine, movies, national, nyregion, obituaries,
opinion, politics, realestate, science, sports, sundayreview,
technology, theater, tmagazine, travel, upshot, world`
  .replace(/ /g, "")
  .split(",");

function HomePage() {
  const [selectedSection, setSelectedSection] = useState("arts");
  const [articles, setArticles] = useState([]);
  const [initialized, setInitialized] = useState(false);
  const { t, i18n } = useTranslation();

const load = async section => {
    setSelectedSection(section);
    const response = await getArticles(section);
    setArticles(response.data.results || []);
  };

const loadArticles = async e => {
    if (!e || !e.target) {
      return;
    }
    setSelectedSection(e.target.value);
    load(e.target.value);
  };

const initializeArticles = () => {
    load(selectedSection);
    setInitialized(true);
  };

useEffect(() => {
    if (!initialized) {
      initializeArticles();
    }
  });

return (
    <div className="HomePage">
      <div className="col-12">
        <div className="row">
          <div className="col-md-3 d-none d-md-block d-lg-block d-xl-block">
            <ListGroup className="sections">
              {sections.map(s => (
                <ListGroup.Item
                  key={s}
                  className="list-group-item"
                  active={s == selectedSection}
                >
                  <a
                    className="link"
                    onClick={() => {
                      load(s);
                    }}
                  >
                    {t(s)}
                  </a>
                </ListGroup.Item>
              ))}
            </ListGroup>
          </div>
          <div className="col right">
            <Form className="d-sm-block d-md-none d-lg-none d-xl-none">
              <Form.Group controlId="section">
                <Form.Label>{t("Section")}</Form.Label>
                <Form.Control
                  as="select"
                  onChange={loadArticles}
                  value={selectedSection}
                >
                  {sections.map(s => (
                    <option key={s} value={s}>{t(s)}</option>
                  ))}
                </Form.Control>
              </Form.Group>
            </Form>
            <h1>{t(selectedSection)}</h1>
            {articles.map((a, i) => (
              <Card key={i}>
                <Card.Body>
                  <Card.Title>{a.title}</Card.Title>
                  <Card.Img
                    variant="top"
                    className="image"
                    src={
                      Array.isArray(a.multimedia) &&
                      a.multimedia[a.multimedia.length - 1]
                        ? a.multimedia[a.multimedia.length - 1].url
                        : null
                    }
                  />
                  <Card.Text>{a.abstract}</Card.Text>
                  <Button
                    variant="primary"
                    onClick={() => (window.location.href = a.url)}
                  >
                    {t("Go")}
                  </Button>
                </Card.Body>
              </Card>
            ))}
          </div>
        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
  );
}

export default HomePage;

In this file, we display a responsive layout where there is a left bar is the screen is wide and the a drop down on the right pane if it’s not. We display the items in the chosen section we choose from the left pane or the drop down. To display the items, we use the Card widget from React Bootstrap. We also use the t function provided by react-i18next to load our text from our translation file, which we will create. To load the initial article entries, we run a function in the callback of the useEffect function to show load the items once from the New York Times API. We need the initialized flag so that the function in the callback won’t load on every re-render. In the drop down, we added code to load articles whenever the selection changes.

The we createHomePage.css , and add:

.link {
  cursor: pointer;
}

.right {
  padding: 20px;
}

.image {
  max-width: 400px;
  text-align: center;
}

.sections {
    margin-top: 20px;
}

We change the cursor style for the Go button and add some padding to the right pane.

Next we create a file for loading the translations and setting the default language. Create a file called i18n.js and add:

import i18n from "i18next";
import { initReactI18next } from "react-i18next";
import { resources } from "./translations";
import Backend from "i18next-xhr-backend";
import LanguageDetector from "i18next-browser-languagedetector";

i18n
  .use(Backend)
  .use(LanguageDetector)
  .use(initReactI18next)
  .init({
    resources,
    lng: "en",
    fallbackLng: "en",
    debug: true,

interpolation: {
      escapeValue: false,
    },
  });

export default i18n;

In this file, we load the translations from a file, and set the default language to English. Since react-i18next escapes everything, we can set escapeValue to false for interpolation since it’s redundant.

We need a file to put the code for making HTTP requests. To do so, we create a file called requests.js and add:

const APIURL = "https://api.nytimes.com/svc";
const axios = require("axios");
const querystring = require("querystring");

export const search = data => {
  Object.keys(data).forEach(key => {
    data["api-key"] = process.env.REACT_APP_APIKEY;
    if (!data[key]) {
      delete data[key];
    }
  });
  return axios.get(
    `${APIURL}/search/v2/articlesearch.json?${querystring.encode(data)}`
  );
};
export const getArticles = section =>
  axios.get(
    `${APIURL}/topstories/v2/${section}.json?api-key=${process.env.REACT_APP_APIKEY}`
  );

We load the API key from the process.env.REACT_APP_APIKEY variable, which is provided by an environment variable in the .env file located at the root folder. You have to create it yourself, and in there, put:

REACT_APP_APIKEY='you New York Times API key'

Replace the value on the right side with the API key you got after registering in the New York Times API website.

Next we create the search page. Create a file called SearchPage.js and add:

import React from "react";
import { useState } from "react";
import { useTranslation } from "react-i18next";
import "./SearchPage.css";
import * as yup from "yup";
import { Formik } from "formik";
import Form from "react-bootstrap/Form";
import Col from "react-bootstrap/Col";
import Button from "react-bootstrap/Button";
import { Trans } from "react-i18next";
import { search } from "./requests";
import Card from "react-bootstrap/Card";

const schema = yup.object({
  keyword: yup.string().required("Keyword is required"),
});

function SearchPage() {
  const { t } = useTranslation();
  const [articles, setArticles] = useState([]);
  const [count, setCount] = useState(0);

const handleSubmit = async e => {
    const response = await search({ q: e.keyword });
    setArticles(response.data.response.docs || []);
  };

return (
    <div className="SearchPage">
      <h1 className="center">{t("Search")}</h1>
      <Formik validationSchema={schema} onSubmit={handleSubmit}>
        {({
          handleSubmit,
          handleChange,
          handleBlur,
          values,
          touched,
          isInvalid,
          errors,
        }) => (
          <Form noValidate onSubmit={handleSubmit} className="form">
            <Form.Row>
              <Form.Group as={Col} md="12" controlId="keyword">
                <Form.Label>{t("Keyword")}</Form.Label>
                <Form.Control
                  type="text"
                  name="keyword"
                  placeholder={t("Keyword")}
                  value={values.keyword || ""}
                  onChange={handleChange}
                  isInvalid={touched.keyword && errors.keyword}
                />
                <Form.Control.Feedback type="invalid">
                  {errors.keyword}
                </Form.Control.Feedback>
              </Form.Group>
            </Form.Row>
            <Button type="submit" style={{ marginRight: "10px" }}>
              {t("Search")}
            </Button>
          </Form>
        )}
      </Formik>
      <h3 className="form">
        <Trans i18nKey="numResults" count={articles.length}>
          There are <strong>{{ count }}</strong> results.
        </Trans>
      </h3>
      {articles.map((a, i) => (
        <Card key={i}>
          <Card.Body>
            <Card.Title>{a.headline.main}</Card.Title>
            <Card.Text>{a.abstract}</Card.Text>
            <Button
              variant="primary"
              onClick={() => (window.location.href = a.web_url)}
            >
              {t("Go")}
            </Button>
          </Card.Body>
        </Card>
      ))}
    </div>
  );
}

export default SearchPage;

This is where we create a search form with the keyword field used for searching the API. When the use clicks Search, then it will search the New York Times API for articles using the keyword. We use Formik to handle the form value changes and make the values available in the e object in the handleSubmit parameter for us to use. We use React Bootstrap for the buttons, form elements, and the cards. After clicking Search, the articles variable get set and load the cards for the articles.

We use the Trans component provided by react-i18next for translating text that have some dynamic components, like in the example above. We have a variable in the text for the number of results. Whenever you have something like, you wrap it in the Trans component and then pass in the variables like in the example above by passing in the variables as props. Then you will show the variable in the text between the Trans tags. We we will also make interpolation available in the translations by putting “There are <1>{{count}}</1> results.” in the English translation and “Il y a <1>{{count}}</1> résultats.” in French translation. The 1 tag corresponds to the strong tag. The number in this case is arbitrary. As long as the pattern consistent with the component’s pattern, it will work, so strong tag in this case should always be 1 in the translation string.

To add the translations mentioned above along with the rest of the translations, create a file called translations.js and add:

const resources = {
  en: {
    translation: {
      "New York Times App": "New York Times App",
      arts: "Arts",
      automobiles: "Automobiles",
      books: "Books",
      business: "Business",
      fashion: "Fashion",
      food: "Food",
      health: "Health",
      home: "Home",
      insider: "Inside",
      magazine: "Magazine",
      movies: "Movies",
      national: "National",
      nyregion: "New York Region",
      obituaries: "Obituaries",
      opinion: "Opinion",
      politics: "Politics",
      realestate: "Real Estate",
      science: "Science",
      sports: "Sports",
      sundayreview: "Sunday Review",
      technology: "Technology",
      theater: "Theater",
      tmagazine: "T Magazine",
      travel: "Travel",
      upshot: "Upshot",
      world: "World",
      Search: "Search",
      numResults: "There are <1>{{count}}</1> results.",
      Home: "Home",
      Search: "Search",
      Language: "Language",
      English: "English",
      French: "French",
      Keyword: "Keyword",
      Go: "Go",
      Section: "Section",
    },
  },
  fr: {
    translation: {
      "New York Times App": "App New York Times",
      arts: "Arts",
      automobiles: "Les automobiles",
      books: "Livres",
      business: "Entreprise",
      fashion: "Mode",
      food: "Aliments",
      health: "Santé",
      home: "Maison",
      insider: "Initiée",
      magazine: "Magazine",
      movies: "Films",
      national: "Nationale",
      nyregion: "La région de new york",
      obituaries: "Notices nécrologiques",
      opinion: "Opinion",
      politics: "Politique",
      realestate: "Immobilier",
      science: "Science",
      sports: "Des sports",
      sundayreview: "Avis dimanche",
      technology: "La technologie",
      theater: "Théâtre",
      tmagazine: "Magazine T",
      travel: "Voyage",
      upshot: "Résultat",
      world: "Monde",
      Search: "Search",
      numResults: "Il y a <1>{{count}}</1> résultats.",
      Home: "Page d'accueil",
      Search: "Chercher",
      Language: "La langue",
      English: "Anglais",
      French: "Français",
      Keyword: "Mot-clé",
      Go: "Aller",
      Section: "Section",
    },
  },
};

export { resources };

We have the static text translations, and the interpolated text we mentioned above in this file.

Finally, we create the top bar by creating TopBar.js and add:

import React from "react";
import Navbar from "react-bootstrap/Navbar";
import Nav from "react-bootstrap/Nav";
import NavDropdown from "react-bootstrap/NavDropdown";
import "./TopBar.css";
import { withRouter } from "react-router-dom";
import { useTranslation } from "react-i18next";

function TopBar({ location }) {
  const { pathname } = location;
  const { t, i18n } = useTranslation();
  const changeLanguage = lng => {
    localStorage.setItem("language", lng);
    i18n.changeLanguage(lng);
  };

return (
    <Navbar bg="primary" expand="lg" variant="dark">
      <Navbar.Brand href="#home">{t("New York Times App")}</Navbar.Brand>
      <Navbar.Toggle aria-controls="basic-navbar-nav" />
      <Navbar.Collapse id="basic-navbar-nav">
        <Nav className="mr-auto">
          <Nav.Link href="/" active={pathname == "/"}>
            {t("Home")}
          </Nav.Link>
          <Nav.Link href="/search" active={pathname.includes("/search")}>
            {t("Search")}
          </Nav.Link>
          <NavDropdown title={t("Language")} id="basic-nav-dropdown">
            <NavDropdown.Item onClick={() => changeLanguage("en")}>
              {t("English")}
            </NavDropdown.Item>
            <NavDropdown.Item onClick={() => changeLanguage("fr")}>
              {t("French")}
            </NavDropdown.Item>
          </NavDropdown>
        </Nav>
      </Navbar.Collapse>
    </Navbar>
  );
}

export default withRouter(TopBar);

We use the NavBar component provided by React Boostrap and we add a drop down for users to select a language and when they click those items, they can set the language. Notice that we wrapped the TopBar component with the withRouter function so that we get the current route’s value with the location prop, and use it to set which link is active by setting the active prop in the Nav.Link components.

Finally, we replace the existing code in index.html with:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
  <head>
    <meta charset="utf-8" />
    <link rel="shortcut icon" href="%PUBLIC_URL%/favicon.ico" />
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1" />
    <meta name="theme-color" content="#000000" />
    <meta
      name="description"
      content="Web site created using create-react-app"
    />
    <link rel="apple-touch-icon" href="logo192.png" />
    <!--
      manifest.json provides metadata used when your web app is installed on a
      user's mobile device or desktop. See https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/web-app-manifest/`
    -->
    <link rel="manifest" href="%PUBLIC_URL%/manifest.json" />
    <!--
      Notice the use of %PUBLIC_URL% in the tags above.
      It will be replaced with the URL of the `public` folder during the build.
      Only files inside the `public` folder can be referenced from the HTML.

Unlike "/favicon.ico" or "favicon.ico", "%PUBLIC_URL%/favicon.ico" will
      work correctly both with client-side routing and a non-root public URL.
      Learn how to configure a non-root public URL by running `npm run build`.
    -->
    <title>React New York Times App</title>
    <link
      rel="stylesheet"
      href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.3.1/css/bootstrap.min.css"
      integrity="sha384-ggOyR0iXCbMQv3Xipma34MD+dH/1fQ784/j6cY/iJTQUOhcWr7x9JvoRxT2MZw1T"
      crossorigin="anonymous"
    />
  </head>
  <body>
    <noscript>You need to enable JavaScript to run this app.</noscript>
    <div id="root"></div>
    <!--
      This HTML file is a template.
      If you open it directly in the browser, you will see an empty page.

You can add webfonts, meta tags, or analytics to this file.
      The build step will place the bundled scripts into the <body> tag.

To begin the development, run `npm start` or `yarn start`.
      To create a production bundle, use `npm run build` or `yarn build`.
    -->
  </body>
</html>

to add the Bootstrap CSS and change the title of the app.

After all the work is done, when we run npm start , we get:

Categories
Bootstrap HTML

Bootstrap 5 — Tables

Bootstrap 5 is in alpha when this is written and it’s subject to change.

Bootstrap is a popular UI library for any JavaScript apps.

In this article, we’ll look at how to style tables with Bootstrap 5.

Tables

Bootstrap table styles are opt-in because of the widespread of use of tables in other UI components.

The table styles aren’t inherited in Bootstrap.

So nested tables can be styles independently of the parent.

For example, we can use the table class to style tables.

We can create a simple table by writing:

<table class="table">  
  <thead>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="col">#</th>  
      <th scope="col">First</th>  
      <th scope="col">Last</th>  
      <th scope="col">Age</th>  
    </tr>  
  </thead>  
  <tbody>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">1</th>  
      <td>james</td>  
      <td>smith</td>  
      <td>20</td>  
    </tr>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">2</th>  
      <td>mary</td>  
      <td>jones</td>  
      <td>20</td>  
    </tr>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">3</th>  
      <td colspan="2">Larry</td>  
      <td>50</td>  
    </tr>  
  </tbody>  
</table>

Variants

There are many styling variants for a table.

We can style them with the following classes:

<table class="table-primary">...</table>  
<table class="table-secondary">...</table>  
<table class="table-success">...</table>  
<table class="table-danger">...</table>  
<table class="table-warning">...</table>  
<table class="table-info">...</table>  
<table class="table-light">...</table>  
<table class="table-dark">...</table>

They also work on rows:

<tr class="table-primary">...</tr>  
<tr class="table-secondary">...</tr>  
<tr class="table-success">...</tr>  
<tr class="table-danger">...</tr>  
<tr class="table-warning">...</tr>  
<tr class="table-info">...</tr>  
<tr class="table-light">...</tr>  
<tr class="table-dark">...</tr>

And they also work on table cells:

<tr>  
  <td class="table-primary">...</td>  
  <td class="table-secondary">...</td>  
  <td class="table-success">...</td>  
  <td class="table-danger">...</td>  
  <td class="table-warning">...</td>  
  <td class="table-info">...</td>  
  <td class="table-light">...</td>  
  <td class="table-dark">...</td>  
</tr>

Accented Tables

We can add the .table-striped class to add zebra striping to table rows within the tbody .

For example, we can write:

<table class="table table-striped">  
  <thead>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="col">#</th>  
      <th scope="col">First</th>  
      <th scope="col">Last</th>  
      <th scope="col">Age</th>  
    </tr>  
  </thead>  
  <tbody>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">1</th>  
      <td>james</td>  
      <td>smith</td>  
      <td>20</td>  
    </tr>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">2</th>  
      <td>mary</td>  
      <td>jones</td>  
      <td>20</td>  
    </tr>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">3</th>  
      <td colspan="2">Larry</td>  
      <td>50</td>  
    </tr>  
  </tbody>  
</table>

Stripes also work with other table variants:

<table class="table table-dark table-striped">  
  <thead>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="col">#</th>  
      <th scope="col">First</th>  
      <th scope="col">Last</th>  
      <th scope="col">Age</th>  
    </tr>  
  </thead>  
  <tbody>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">1</th>  
      <td>james</td>  
      <td>smith</td>  
      <td>20</td>  
    </tr>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">2</th>  
      <td>mary</td>  
      <td>jones</td>  
      <td>20</td>  
    </tr>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">3</th>  
      <td colspan="2">Larry</td>  
      <td>50</td>  
    </tr>  
  </tbody>  
</table>

Hoverable Rows

To make rows hoverable, we can add the table-hover class:

<table class="table table-hover">  
  <thead>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="col">#</th>  
      <th scope="col">First</th>  
      <th scope="col">Last</th>  
      <th scope="col">Age</th>  
    </tr>  
  </thead>  
  <tbody>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">1</th>  
      <td>james</td>  
      <td>smith</td>  
      <td>20</td>  
    </tr>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">2</th>  
      <td>mary</td>  
      <td>jones</td>  
      <td>20</td>  
    </tr>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">3</th>  
      <td colspan="2">Larry</td>  
      <td>50</td>  
    </tr>  
  </tbody>  
</table>

Now we see the row that we hovered on highlighted.

The hover effect can be combined with stripes:

<table class="table table-striped table-hover">  
  <thead>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="col">#</th>  
      <th scope="col">First</th>  
      <th scope="col">Last</th>  
      <th scope="col">Age</th>  
    </tr>  
  </thead>  
  <tbody>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">1</th>  
      <td>james</td>  
      <td>smith</td>  
      <td>20</td>  
    </tr>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">2</th>  
      <td>mary</td>  
      <td>jones</td>  
      <td>20</td>  
    </tr>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">3</th>  
      <td colspan="2">Larry</td>  
      <td>50</td>  
    </tr>  
  </tbody>  
</table>

Active Tables

We can highlight a table row or cell with the table-active class:

<table class="table">  
  <thead>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="col">#</th>  
      <th scope="col">First</th>  
      <th scope="col">Last</th>  
      <th scope="col">Age</th>  
    </tr>  
  </thead>  
  <tbody>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">1</th>  
      <td class="table-active">james</td>  
      <td>smith</td>  
      <td>20</td>  
    </tr>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">2</th>  
      <td>mary</td>  
      <td>jones</td>  
      <td>20</td>  
    </tr>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">3</th>  
      <td colspan="2">Larry</td>  
      <td>50</td>  
    </tr>  
  </tbody>  
</table>

We add the table-active class on the cell so it’ll be highlighted.

This also works with other variants:

<table class="table table-success">  
  <thead>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="col">#</th>  
      <th scope="col">First</th>  
      <th scope="col">Last</th>  
      <th scope="col">Age</th>  
    </tr>  
  </thead>  
  <tbody>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">1</th>  
      <td class="table-active">james</td>  
      <td>smith</td>  
      <td>20</td>  
    </tr>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">2</th>  
      <td>mary</td>  
      <td>jones</td>  
      <td>20</td>  
    </tr>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">3</th>  
      <td colspan="2">Larry</td>  
      <td>50</td>  
    </tr>  
  </tbody>  
</table>

The styling works by setting the background with the --bs-table-bg property.

Then the gradient on the table is added with the background-image: linear-gradient(var( — bs-table-accent-bg), var( — bs-table-accent-bg)); CSS property.

When .table-striped , .table-hover or .table-active classes are added, the --bs-table-accent-bg is set to semitransparent color to change the color of the background.

--bs-table-accent-bg color with the highest contrast is generated for the highlights.

Text and border colors are generated the same way.

Table Borders

We can add borders with the table-bordered class:

<table class="table table-bordered">  
  <thead>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="col">#</th>  
      <th scope="col">First</th>  
      <th scope="col">Last</th>  
      <th scope="col">Age</th>  
    </tr>  
  </thead>  
  <tbody>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">1</th>  
      <td>james</td>  
      <td>smith</td>  
      <td>20</td>  
    </tr>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">2</th>  
      <td>mary</td>  
      <td>jones</td>  
      <td>20</td>  
    </tr>  
    <tr>  
      <th scope="row">3</th>  
      <td colspan="2">Larry</td>  
      <td>50</td>  
    </tr>  
  </tbody>  
</table>

Conclusion

We can add tables with various effects like stripes, hover, and various colors.

Categories
Bootstrap HTML

Bootstrap 5 — Table Captions, Figures, and Form Fields

Bootstrap 5 is in alpha when this is written and it’s subject to change.

Bootstrap is a popular UI library for any JavaScript apps.

In this article, we’ll look at how to style tables, figures, and form fields with Bootstrap 5.

Captions

We can add a caption to the top of the table with the caption-top class:

<table class="table caption-top">
  <caption>List of people</caption>
  <thead class="table-dark">
    <tr>
      <th scope="col">#</th>
      <th scope="col">First</th>
      <th scope="col">Last</th>
      <th scope="col">Age</th>
    </tr>
  </thead>
  <tbody>
    <tr>
      <th scope="row">1</th>
      <td>james</td>
      <td>smith</td>
      <td>20</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <th scope="row">2</th>
      <td>mary</td>
      <td>jones</td>
      <td>20</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <th scope="row">3</th>
      <td colspan="2">Larry</td>
      <td>50</td>
    </tr>
  </tbody>
  <tfoot>
    <tr>
      <th>footer</th>
      <td>footer</td>
      <td>footer</td>
      <td>footer</td>
    </tr>
  </tfoot>
</table>

Responsive Tables

We can make tables responsive with the table-responsive class

To make it always responsive, we can use the table-responsive class:

<div class="table-responsive">
  <table class="table">
    <thead class="table-dark">
      <tr>
        <th scope="col">#</th>
        <th scope="col">First</th>
        <th scope="col">Last</th>
        <th scope="col">Age</th>
      </tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody>
      <tr>
        <th scope="row">1</th>
        <td>james</td>
        <td>smith</td>
        <td>20</td>
      </tr>
      <tr>
        <th scope="row">2</th>
        <td>mary</td>
        <td>jones</td>
        <td>20</td>
      </tr>
      <tr>
        <th scope="row">3</th>
        <td colspan="2">Larry</td>
        <td>50</td>
      </tr>
    </tbody>
    <tfoot>
      <tr>
        <th>footer</th>
        <td>footer</td>
        <td>footer</td>
        <td>footer</td>
      </tr>
    </tfoot>
  </table>
</div>

We make the table always responsive with the class in a div outside the table.

Also, we can make them responsive at a given breakpoint.

For example, we can write:

<div class="table-responsive-sm">
  <table class="table">
    <thead class="table-dark">
      <tr>
        <th scope="col">#</th>
        <th scope="col">First</th>
        <th scope="col">Last</th>
        <th scope="col">Age</th>
      </tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody>
      <tr>
        <th scope="row">1</th>
        <td>james</td>
        <td>smith</td>
        <td>20</td>
      </tr>
      <tr>
        <th scope="row">2</th>
        <td>mary</td>
        <td>jones</td>
        <td>20</td>
      </tr>
      <tr>
        <th scope="row">3</th>
        <td colspan="2">Larry</td>
        <td>50</td>
      </tr>
    </tbody>
    <tfoot>
      <tr>
        <th>footer</th>
        <td>footer</td>
        <td>footer</td>
        <td>footer</td>
      </tr>
    </tfoot>
  </table>
</div>

to make it responsive when the screen is wide enough to hit the sm breakpoint or wider.

sm can be substituted with md , lg , xl , or xxl .

Customizing in SASS

The table style presets can be changed in SASS.

The $table-striped-bg-factor, $table-active-bg-factor and $table-hover-bg-factor variables are used to determine the contrast in table variants.

Theme colors are lightened by the $table-bg-level variable.

Figures

We can add figures with captions with the figure tag.

The figcaption tag adds a caption for the figure.

Bootstrap 5 provides classes to make styling them easier.

For example, we can write:

`<figure class="figure">
  <img src="`http://placekitten.com/200/200`" class="figure-img img-fluid rounded" alt="cat">
  <figcaption class="figure-caption">A cat.</figcaption>
</figure>`

With Bootstrap 5’s text utilities, aligning the figure captions are easy:

`<figure class="figure">
  <img src="`http://placekitten.com/200/200`" class="figure-img img-fluid rounded" alt="cat">
  <figcaption class="figure-caption text-right">A cat.</figcaption>
</figure>`

With the text-right class, we aligned the caption to the right.

Form Controls

We can add form controls with Bootstrap 5 styles with the included classes.

For example, we can write:

<div class="mb-3">
  <label for="email" class="form-label">Email address</label>
  <input type="email" class="form-control" id="email" placeholder="name@example.com">
</div>

<div class="mb-3">
  <label for="text" class="form-label">Example textarea</label>
  <textarea class="form-control" id="text" rows="3"></textarea>
</div>

to add some form controls.

We have the form-control class to add the form control styles.

form-label class add the form label styles.

Sizing

To change the size of the controls, we can use the .form-control-lg and .form-control-sm classes:

<div class="mb-3">
  <label for="email" class="form-label">Email address</label>
  <input type="email" class="form-control-lg" id="email" placeholder="name@example.com">
</div>

We make the form control large with the form-control-lg class.

Likewise, we can make them smaller with the .form-control.sm class:

<div class="mb-3">
  <label for="email" class="form-label">Email address</label>
  <input type="email" class="form-control-sm" id="email" placeholder="name@example.com">
</div>

Readonly

We can add the readonly boolean attribute to prevent users from changing the input value of the form.

For example, we can write:

<div class="mb-3">
  <label for="email" class="form-label">Email address</label>
  <input type="email" class="form-control" id="email" placeholder="name@example.com" readonly>
</div>

The form input will be grayed out.

Readonly Plain Text

If we want to have a readonly form field without the any styles, then we can use the .form-control-plaintext class to make the field display as plain text.

For example, we can write:

<div class="mb-3">
  <label for="email" class="form-label">Email address</label>
  <input type="email" class="form-control-plaintext" id="email" placeholder="name@example.com" readonly>
</div>

Now there’re no borders and other things displayed.

Conclusion

We can add styles to tables, figures, and form fields.

Categories
Bootstrap HTML

Bootstrap 5 — Radio Buttons, Checkboxes, and File Inputs

Bootstrap 5 is in alpha when this is written and it’s subject to change.

Bootstrap is a popular UI library for any JavaScript apps.

In this article, we’ll look at how to style radio buttons, checkboxes, and file inputs with Bootstrap 5.

Radio Buttons and Checkboxes without Labels

We can add radio buttons and checkboxes without labels.

To do that, we can write:

<div>
  <input class="form-check-input" type="checkbox" id="checkboxNoLabel" value="">
</div>

<div>
  <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="radioNoLabel" id="radioNoLabel1" value="">
</div>

to add them.

Toggle Buttons

Bootstrap lets us turn checkboxes and radio buttons into toggle buttons.

To do that, we can write:

<input type="checkbox" class="btn-check" id="btn-check" autocomplete="off">
<label class="btn btn-primary" for="btn-check">toggle</label>

to add the toggle button.

It’ll display differently depending on if it’s toggled on or off.

The id of the input and the for attribute of the label have to match.

Radio Toggle Buttons

We can do the same for radio buttons.

For example, we can write:

<div class="btn-group">
  <input type="radio" class="btn-check" name="options" id="apple" autocomplete="off" checked>
  <label class="btn btn-secondary" for="apple">apple</label>

<input type="radio" class="btn-check" name="options" id="orange" autocomplete="off">
  <label class="btn btn-secondary" for="orange">orange</label>

<input type="radio" class="btn-check" name="options" id="grape" autocomplete="off">
  <label class="btn btn-secondary" for="grape">grape</label>
</div>

to add a button group.

Each button is a group is a radio button.

We use the btn-group class to style the button group.

The input type is set to radio .

btn-check is the class to make them display as toggle buttons.

And the id of the input has to match the for attribute value of the label .

Outlined Styles

The toggle can have outlined styles instead of a background color.

For example, we can write:

<div class="btn-group">
  <input type="radio" class="btn-check" name="options" id="apple" autocomplete="off" checked>
  <label class="btn btn-outline-secondary" for="apple">apple</label>

<input type="radio" class="btn-check" name="options" id="orange" autocomplete="off">
  <label class="btn btn-outline-secondary" for="orange">orange</label>

<input type="radio" class="btn-check" name="options" id="grape" autocomplete="off">
  <label class="btn btn-outline-secondary" for="grape">grape</label>
</div>

to make the buttons that aren’t chosen display an outline.

We add the word outline in the class name for the label.

For checkboxes, we can write:

<input type="checkbox" class="btn-check" id="btn-check-outlined" autocomplete="off">
<label class="btn btn-outline-primary" for="btn-check-outlined">apple</label><br>

to make the toggle button displayed with outline styles instead of a background color.

File Browser

Bootstrap 5 provides a file browser to let users select a file.

For example, we can write:

<div class="form-file">
  <input type="file" class="form-file-input" id="customFile">
  <label class="form-file-label" for="customFile">
    <span class="form-file-text">Choose a file...</span>
    <span class="form-file-button">Browse</span>
  </label>
</div>

to add a file input with an input with the type set to file .

Also, we add the label with the form-file-label class.

Inside it, we add our placeholder, which is the span with the form-file-text class.

We also have a span with the form-file-button class to display a button we can click to show the file browser to let us select a file.

To disable the file input, we can add the disabled prop to the input.

For example, we can write:

<div class="form-file">
  <input type="file" class="form-file-input" id="customFile" disabled>
  <label class="form-file-label" for="customFile">
    <span class="form-file-text">Choose file...</span>
    <span class="form-file-button">Browse</span>
  </label>
</div>

to disable the file input.

If we have longer placeholder text, it’ll be truncated with an ellipsis added at the end:

<div class="form-file">
  <input type="file" class="form-file-input" id="customFile">
  <label class="form-file-label" for="customFile">
    <span class="form-file-text">Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Pellentesque quis nunc ultricies enim ullamcorper pretium at cursus tellus. Curabitur sit amet leo arcu. Integer vitae tincidunt odio. Duis id nunc dignissim, fringilla lacus ut, rutrum ligula. Morbi euismod accumsan augue, sit amet finibus ipsum ultrices ac. Ut convallis quis lacus in volutpat. Pellentesque volutpat dui et enim mattis, egestas posuere nisl maximus. Aenean commodo laoreet enim, sit amet tincidunt nisl porttitor non. Ut vestibulum mauris urna, eget consectetur tellus maximus at. Suspendisse pharetra ut erat sed euismod.
    </span>
    <span class="form-file-button">Browse</span>
  </label>
</div>

Conclusion

We can style radio buttons and checkboxes as toggle buttons.

Also, Bootstrap 5 comes with its own file input.

Categories
Bootstrap HTML

Bootstrap 5 — Radio Buttons and Checkboxes

Bootstrap 5 is in alpha when this is written and it’s subject to change.

Bootstrap is a popular UI library for any JavaScript apps.

In this article, we’ll look at how to style radio buttons and checkboxes with Bootstrap 5.

Radio Buttons

Bootstrap 5 also provides styles for radio buttons.

To add them, we can write:

<div class="form-check">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="fruit" id="apple">
  <label class="form-check-label" for="apple">
    apple
  </label>
</div>

<div class="form-check">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="fruit" id="orange" checked>
  <label class="form-check-label" for="orange">
    orange
  </label>
</div>

We set the type attribute to radio .

And we set the name of both radio buttons to be the same so that we can select between them.

Also, we use the form-check class to style the radio button.

Inside the divs we use the form-check-input and form-check-label classes as we did with checkboxes.

Disabled Radio Buttons

We can disable radio buttons with the disabled attribute.

Then we won’t be able to interact with them.

They’ll also be lighter than usual.

For example, we can write:

<div class="form-check">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="flexRadioDefault" id="apple" disabled>
  <label class="form-check-label" for="apple">
    apple
  </label>
</div>

<div class="form-check">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="flexRadioDefault" id="orange" checked disabled>
  <label class="form-check-label" for="orange">
    orange
  </label>
</div>

Switches

We can add switches with the form-check and form-switch classes.

The type of the inputs are set to checkbox .

For example, we can write:

<div class="form-check form-switch">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="checkbox" id="apple">
  <label class="form-check-label" for="apple">apple</label>
</div>

<div class="form-check form-switch">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="checkbox" id="orange" checked>
  <label class="form-check-label" for="orange">orange</label>
</div>

<div class="form-check form-switch">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="checkbox" id="grape" disabled>
  <label class="form-check-label" for="grape">grape</label>
</div>

<div class="form-check form-switch">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="checkbox" id="lemon" checked disabled>
  <label class="form-check-label" for="lemon">lemon</label>
</div>

We use the form-check and form-switch classes on the div.

And we use the form-check-input class to style the checkbox.

The form-check-label class is applied to the checkbox label.

Default (Stacked)

Checkboxes are stacked on top of each other by default.

For example, if we have:

<div class="form-check">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="checkbox" value="" id="apple">
  <label class="form-check-label" for="apple">
    apple
  </label>
</div>

<div class="form-check">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="checkbox" value="" id="orange" disabled>
  <label class="form-check-label" for="orange">
    orange
  </label>
</div>

Then we 2 checkboxes stacked on top of each other.

Likewise, if we have multiple radio buttons, they’ll also be stacked on top of each other:

<div class="form-check">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="fruit" id="apple" value="apple" checked>
  <label class="form-check-label" for="apple">
    apple
  </label>
</div>

<div class="form-check">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="fruit" id="orange" value="orange">
  <label class="form-check-label" for="orange">
    orange
  </label>
</div>

<div class="form-check">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="fruit" id="banana" value="banana" disabled>
  <label class="form-check-label" for="banana">
    banana
  </label>
</div>

We have multiple radio buttons with the usual classes.

We didn’t have to do anything to make them stacked in addition to that.

Inline

To make checkboxes inline, we just add the form-check-line class to make them inline.

For example, we can write:

<div class="form-check form-check-inline">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="checkbox" value="" id="apple">
  <label class="form-check-label" for="apple">
    apple
  </label>
</div>

<div class="form-check form-check-inline">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="checkbox" value="" id="orange" disabled>
  <label class="form-check-label" for="orange">
    orange
  </label>
</div>

We add the form-check-inline class to each checkbox div to make them inline.

With radio buttons, we can do the same thing:

<div class="form-check form-check-inline">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="fruit" id="apple" value="apple" checked>
  <label class="form-check-label" for="apple">
    apple
  </label>
</div>

<div class="form-check form-check-inline">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="fruit" id="orange" value="orange">
  <label class="form-check-label" for="orange">
    orange
  </label>
</div>

<div class="form-check form-check-inline">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="fruit" id="banana" value="banana" disabled>
  <label class="form-check-label" for="banana">
    banana
  </label>
</div>

We just add them to the div.

Conclusion

We can style radio buttons and checkboxes with Bootstrap 5 styles.

It comes with many styles that we can use to style them our way.